What are copepods?

They are really tiny crustaceans that you can only see at naked-eye when cultures are really dense. This odd-looking creatures, which are on the basis of the food chain, are used as feed for creatures from Pseudochromis to flame angels.
We know it’s a strange concept. When you go to swim, and for some reason swallow water, we hate to break it trough, but you probably also swallow some copepods.


Why Acartia tonsa?

Among all copepods species that you can find in the wild, Acartia tonsa is one of the most resilient: it can be used on different water conditions, maintaining its biological value as live prey. This calanoid specie is extremely used for fish and crustacean larvae feeding, due to its high nutritional value and large range of dimensions.


Which species eat copepods?

Many ornamental species, especially the smaller ones, enjoy a good copepod snack. Here are some examples:

Species that eat copepods


Why can’t I see copepods in the flask?

Sometimes they are just too tiny for you to see them clearly. Try to put them near a light focus, and a small blot of copepods will appear. Trust us, they are there!


Why can’t I see copepods in the tank?

If you just put them on it, they might have scattered. Remember, copepods, even the adult ones, are tiny creatures and a tank is a large space for them to disappear. If you have put them on it for a while now… well… we assure you that your community loved it…


How do I keep copepods?

Copepods, especially Acartia tonsa, are complex species that might give you a hard time culturing. We recommend immediate use upon product reception. If you do insist in keeping them, store them in a refrigerated place (4ºC), with the lid slightly open, to promote gas exchange. Don’t keep them for more than 2 days under those conditions.


What’s the difference between microalgae and phytoplankton?

None. Microalgae is the more scientific name for phytoplankton. As copepods, microalgae also have different species, sometimes with different colours. Although that, some might incorrectly associate “microalgae” with some biofilms that might form in glass and “phytoplankton” with the “green-stuff” that is used for brine shrimp, rotifers or even corals feeding. The truth is… microalgae and phytoplankton are the same.


Why Rhodomonas lens?

Rhodomonas lens is the premium feed for copepods and other animals. It’s a natural source of vitamins, pigments and essential omegas that erase the need for artificial enrichment addition. This red microalgae have several benefits on zooplankton enrichment, promoting higher nutritional profiles, faster growth and higher survival rates.


Why Chaetoceros calcitrans?

Chaetoceros calcitrans is one of the most useful diatoms to feeding marine larval fish, crustaceans and all filter feeders. This small microalgae specie have high nutritional value, essential fatty acids and vitamins. Diatoms are suitable to clams feeding, once they are an important source of silica.


Which species eat phytoplankton?

All filter feeders are huge fans of phytoplankton! Here are some examples:

Species that eat phytoplankton


Will phytoplankton form a biofilm in my tanks or sump?

Phytoplankton will not form biofilm in your tank if you administrate the recommended dose. If you have biofilm in your aquarium, reduce nitrogen compounds through partial water changes. This will improve your aquarium performance.


Are PENWave phytoplankton products going to affect my water quality?

PENWave phytoplankton products will not affect your water quality due to the absence of nitrogen compounds in its composition. Also, if you administrate our products in a correct dosage, the majority will be consume by your filter feeders.


Why not other phytoplankton species?

Nannochloropsis Isochrysis Tetraselmis Phaeodactylum Porphyridium Chaeotoceros Rhodomonas
EPA 41.9 0.9 4.3 28.4 21.1 16.7 17.6
DHA 0 9.9 0.1 0.7 0 0.8 8.9
% Proteín 35 29 27.2 30 56 34 56
Pigments Carotenoids Fucoxanthin Clorophyll Fucoxanthin Phycoerythrin Fucoxanthin Phycoerythrin
Silica - - - Yes - Yes -
Cell Shape Spherical Spherical Oval Elongated Spherical Chains of retangular cells Oval
Mobility - Yes Yes - - - Yes
Size (μm) 1-2 5-6 16-20 5-12 15 20 7-10


Where are this products coming from?

All products are 100% natural and eco-friendly aquacultured in Peniche, Portugal! We can certify its quality since we control all the process, so that nothing gets sloppy and your tank receives only the very best!